Name: Johnny, aka "Johnny White"
Bio: Juan Diego Rodriguez-Blanco is an Assistant Professor working at the Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen. He is investigating calcium carbonate crystallization using a variety of techniques (from high resolution microscopy to spectroscopic, solid state and synchrotron-based techniques). Apart from being a compulsive and pathological science fanatic, he loves macro and landscape photography and is a extreme cake lover.
Posts by Johnny White:
- Mars Exploration Program (Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
- Curiosity website at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Curiosity website at NASA
- NEW! - Video of the landing at JPL ; Reception of the first images.
- NEW! – Video taken by MARDI showing the descent of Curiosity (low resolution).
- Times of landing, press conferences (pre- and post-landing)
- Detailed Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) timeline.
- All the RAW images taken by Curiosity
- NASA multimedia of Curiosity
- NASA Photojournal.
- NEW! - HiRISE (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) image of Curiosity capsule descending through the martian atmosphere.
- Mission press-kit
- MSL Science Corner (science instruments)
- Science instruments (papers published in The Space Review, Springer)
- Proposed landing sites (including Gale crater)
- Selection of the landing site
- Geological maps and characterization of Gale crater
- Landing elipse
- HiRise images of Gale Crater
- Digital Terrain Models (including Gale Crater)
- More links to HiRise images of Gale Crater
- Mars Science Laboratory. Entry, Descent, and Landing System Overview
- Mars Science Laboratory Telecommunications System Design
On November 12, 2014 and after 10 years of travel, the European Space Agency (ESA) carried out the first unmanned descent and landing on the surface of a comet’s nucleus. Here you can find some links to follow this mission and get detailed information about Rosetta and Philae.
The Philae lander detached from Rosetta spacecraft and performed a soft landing on a selected area –recently named Agilkia– of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This was not a fast landing event, like the Curiosity rover on 2012. Actually was a complicate manoeuvre and pretty slow (7-hour) descent.
Top left image: close-up of the region containing Philae’s primary landing site Agilkia, which is located on the ‘head’ of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (see more details here).
ESA has confirmed that both the Rosetta and Philae are in perfect conditions. Philae will carry out “elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogical composition of the cometary material, the characterization of physical properties of the surface and subsurface material, the large-scale structure and the magnetic and plasma environment of the nucleus” (Bibring et al., 2007). Philae instruments will analyse surface and sub-surface samples, at least during the first five days of mission after touchdown. The lander will rely both on solar power and batteries, so its lifetime could span from several weeks to a maximum of 4-5 months in the best case scenario.
Images of the landing site:
– Agikilia global view
– Agikilia detailed view
– The best 10 images (so far, before Philae landing) of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko
– Blog at ESA
– Rosetta and Philae blog – The Planetary Society
Rosetta and Philae in social media
– Facebook page of Rosetta
– Twitter page of Rosetta
– Twitter page of Philae
– Twitter page of ESA
– Twitter page of ESA Science
– Twitter page of ESA Operations
– REE feed of Rosetta-Philae
– Location of Rosetta in the solar system (interactive)- Main ESA website
– Brochure about Rosetta-Philae (ESA)
– Rosetta coverage in Science Magazine
– A good article explaining the difficulties of landing on the surface of a comet (Nature News)
Curiosity rover (Mars Science Laboratory, NASA) has successfully landed on Gale crater, Mars, on Monday August 6, 5:31 TU (Sunday August 5, 22:31 PDT). The rover is carrying the most advanced geology and geochemistry laboratory which has been ever sent to another planetary body. This includes cool instrumentation to carry out X-ray diffraction / fluorescence, isotopic and chemical compositional measurements, color imaging and video, remote micro-imaging, meteorological and radiation measurements, etc.
The landing area, Gale crater, has a 5 Km high mountain with layered materials containing clay minerals in the bottom and sulfur and oxygen-bearing minerals depending on height. Curiosity aims to land on a flat area of the crater and drive upward to study the geological history of the region, layer by layer, studying sediments formed in wetter environments during the early history of Mars. Docens of samples will be taken from the ground to conduct an in-depth investigation of Mars’ past or present ability to sustain microbial life. It will be a 2-year amazing mission.
The landing has been the most complicated and riskiest in the history of planetary exploration. Have a look at this 5 minute video produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA) showing the landing procedure.
Below you will find some links to know more about this mission and to follow the events:
General information and main websites of the mission:
Watching the news about Curiosity in real time:
There are different websites which will stream all events from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The best ones are:
More information about the landing procedure, science instruments, etc:
Landing site: Gale crater. Papers and selection of site.
Images of the landing site:
Entry, descent and landing:
Curiosity and social media:
One of the first things which really attracted me when I was a child was the night sky. Maybe that happened because I was born in a very cloudy and rainy area where blue skies during the day and a starry sky at night are not very frequent. Looking at the stars at night when I was a child was a way to feel that “there was more space available”. I still have the first astronomy book I read when I was 12 or 13 years old. Later, I got my first telescope and I really enjoyed exploring many astronomical objects, from planets to galaxies, scattered across the sky. I spent many long nights under the sky –sometimes alone, sometimes with good friends– observing a large number of galaxies, nebulae, star clusters, comets, planets and moons. These are sights which I will never forget.
I would like to suggest something which may help you understand this feeling. Find some time for yourself at night and go to a dark place to see the night sky for at least five minutes. You will see a number of stars; maybe some of the planets of our solar system –they are bright and can be easily spotted. Many of the questions which as geochemists we try to answer may be hidden in these planets and their moons. However, a fast look at the night sky may be even more encouraging when you discover what is directly ‘hitting’ you. You may see a few hundreds stars with your naked eye, but actually the photons of thousands of millions of objects -many of them amazingly huge and as old as the Universe itself- are beaming light directly to your eyes. Our eyes are not sensitive enough to detect or perceive all of them, but photons from galaxy clusters, nebulae, star clusters, planets or asteroids are constantly arriving. Even if you do not see them, they reach your eyes. All that light has travelled billions of years just to meet you and nobody else. It interacts with the living cells of your eyes and their long trip comes to an end. The apparent quiescence of the universe is actually a storm of photons, energy flowing everywhere and reaching us. Some of these photons come from close by regions of the solar system. Others were produced when the Earth and our solar system were not even born and they may have been travelling half the way across the Universe. You only need to enjoy a nice view of the night sky and the photons, which were produced over the whole life of the universe will finish their long billion-year trip arriving to your own eyes, putting you in touch with the universe.
These photons –the “visible” and “invisible” ones– are carrying information about many processes which make the universe the way it is. However there are things which will be always hidden to our eyes. Photons from galaxies at the visible edge of the Universe will reach your eyes, but none from the hidden face of the moon will find you. So close, yet so far. We know what the hidden face of the Moon looks like because humankind has found a useful way of obtaining information: science. After centuries of scientific and technological evolution, we are starting to understand many processes, which occur in the universe because humankind is able to develop instruments, methods and strategies to obtain information.
From my point of view, geochemistry is a branch of science which works in a similar way to astronomy and astrophysics. Astrophysicists try to understand what happens at the atomic –and at a much smaller– scale in order to comprehend the universe. They use telescopes and particle accelerators to obtain information about processes at many, many different length scales. As geochemists we do something similar: in order to understand big things –for example, the changes in ocean chemistry, the climatic history of our planet, or the way some living organisms make huge deposits of minerals– we need to explore the small scale of things. That is the reason we try to understand the speciation of many elements in seawater, how tiny mineral particles react with water droplets in our atmosphere, how minerals form and transform at the nanoscale or how their surfaces evolve in the presence of water, organics, etc. Geochemistry involves large scale work: samples from many different locations around the world are analyzed and even space probes are sent to other worlds to study minerals and rocks … but, and at the same time, geochemists use X-ray diffraction, high resolution microscopy, or synchrotron light to understand processes at the micro and nanoscale. In the end, we all try to quantify how all these atoms, which were created during highly energetic processes in the cores of the stars, work together on our home planet. Nothing is static in our planet. Everything is evolving.
Maybe this is the reason I really love geochemistry. It connects our planet with the universe by linking the atomic to the planetary scale, putting together processes, which occur in milliseconds and all the way to eons. All this gives us a wonderful perspective of our world, our life and our place in the universe. For me it is similar to observing the night sky: apparently, everything seems to be at equilibrium… but actually it is a dynamic equilibrium. Below the apparent quiescence there are millions of things moving, waiting to be discovered and understood.
See this: The scale of the Universe